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UK Biodiversity Indicators 2021. Indicator B4 – Pressure from climate change (Spring Index) 2021

Corporate UK Biodiversity


These documents support context indicator B4 – Pressure from climate change (Spring Index). The documents include a datasheet and a technical background document.

This is a context indicator and is not assessed; it is shown to highlight a biological response to climate change and a potential pressure on biological systems. It shows the impact of temperature change on the timing of biological events such as flowering or migration in the spring. The UK Spring Index is calculated from the annual mean observation date of the following four biological events: first flowering of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), first flowering of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), first recorded flight of an orange-tip butterfly (Anthocharis cardamines), and first sighting of a swallow (Hirundo rustica).

These resources may not be fully accessible for all users. If you need a copy of any of these resources in a different or more accessible format, please get in touch.

Resource type Publication

Topic category Environment

Reference date 2021·10·20

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK. 2021. UK Biodiversity Indicators 2021.

The UK Biodiversity Indicators were first published in 2007. They were created to provide a measure for reporting on the UK’s progress towards meeting international biodiversity goals and targets. The indicators were comprehensively reviewed during 2011 and 2012 to ensure they continued to be based on the most robust and reliable available data, and remained relevant to the new international goals and targets developed in 2010 and 2011.

Responsible organisation
Communications, JNCC distributor

Limitations on public access No limitations

Use constraints Released under the Open Government Licence v3.0. Attribution statement "Contains public sector information from Defra, licenced under the Open Government Licence v3.0"

Metadata date 2021·10·20

Metadata point of contact
Communications, JNCC

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