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UK Biodiversity Indicators 2019. Indicator B4 – Spring Index 2019

Corporate UK Biodiversity


These documents support context indicator: B4. Pressure from climate change (Spring Index). The documents include a fiche, a datasheet and a technical background document.

This is a context indicator, and is not assessed; it is shown to highlight a biological response to climate change and a potential pressure on biological systems. It shows the impact of temperature change on the timing of biological events such as flowering or migration in the spring. The UK Spring Index is calculated from the annual mean observation date of the following four biological events: first flowering of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), first flowering of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), first recorded flight of an orange-tip butterfly (Anthocharis cardamines), and first sighting of a swallow (Hirundo rustica).

Resource type Publication

Topic category Environment

Reference date 2019·09·05

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK (2019). UK Biodiversity Indicators 2019.

The UK indicators were comprehensively reviewed during 2011 and 2012 to ensure they continued to be based on the most robust and reliable available data; and remained relevant to the new international goals and targets. Since then the indicators have been refined to improve their relevance/quality, and new indicators developed to fill gaps. In this version of the publication as many as possible of the indicators have been updated with new data. In some cases, however, development work is ongoing, and where this is the case, the work to develop them has been described briefly.

Responsible organisation
Communications, JNCC distributor

Limitations on public access No limitations

Use constraints Released under the Open Government Licence v3.0. Attribution statement "Contains public sector information from Defra, licenced under the Open Government Licence v3.0"

Metadata date 2019·09·05

Metadata point of contact
Communications, JNCC

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