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UK Biodiversity Indicators 2023. Indicator C5: Birds of the wider countryside and at sea 2023


Updated 14 November 2023.

These documents support state indicator C5 – Birds of the wider countryside and at sea. The documents include a datasheet and technical background document.

The indicator shows relative changes in the abundance of common native birds of farmland and woodland and of freshwater and marine habitats in the UK. Bird populations have long been considered to provide a good indication of the broad state of wildlife in the UK. This is because they occupy a wide range of habitats and respond to environmental pressures that also operate on other groups of wildlife. In addition, there are considerable long-term data on trends in bird populations, allowing for comparison between short-term and long-term changes. Because they are a well-studied taxonomic group, drivers of change for birds are better understood than for some other species groups, which enables interpretation of observed changes.

These resources may not be fully accessible for all users. If you need a copy of any of these resources in a different or more accessible format, please get in touch.

More information on UK Biodiversity Indicator C5 is available on the UKBI C5 webpage.

Resource type Publication

Topic category Environment

Reference date 2023·11·14

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK. 2023. UK Biodiversity Indicators 2023.

The UK Biodiversity Indicators were created to provide a measure for reporting on the UK’s progress towards meeting international biodiversity goals and targets and were first published in 2007.

Responsible organisation
Communications, JNCC distributor

Limitations on public access No limitations

Use constraints Copyright of data and/or information presented in these resources may not reside solely with the distributor (JNCC). For more information, please contact

Metadata date 2023·11·14

Metadata point of contact
Communications, JNCC

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