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UK Biodiversity Indicators 2021. Indicator C5 – Birds of the wider countryside and at sea 2021

Corporate UK Biodiversity


These documents support state indicator C5 – Birds of the wider countryside and at sea. The documents include a datasheet and technical background document.

The indicator shows relative changes in the abundance of common native birds of farmland and woodland and of freshwater and marine habitats in the UK. Bird populations have long been considered to provide a good indication of the broad state of wildlife in the UK. This is because they occupy a wide range of habitats and respond to environmental pressures that also operate on other groups of wildlife. In addition, there are considerable long-term data on trends in bird populations, allowing for comparison between short-term and long-term changes. Because they are a well-studied taxonomic group, drivers of change for birds are better understood than for some other species groups, which enables interpretation of observed changes.

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Resource type Publication

Topic category Environment

Reference date 2021·10·20

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK. 2021. UK Biodiversity Indicators 2021.

The UK Biodiversity Indicators were first published in 2007. They were created to provide a measure for reporting on the UK’s progress towards meeting international biodiversity goals and targets. The indicators were comprehensively reviewed during 2011 and 2012 to ensure they continued to be based on the most robust and reliable available data, and remained relevant to the new international goals and targets developed in 2010 and 2011.

Responsible organisation
Communications, JNCC distributor

Limitations on public access No limitations

Use constraints Released under the Open Government Licence v3.0. Attribution statement "Contains public sector information from Defra, licenced under the Open Government Licence v3.0"

Metadata date 2021·10·20

Metadata point of contact
Communications, JNCC

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