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Better linking effects of offshore windfarms on black-legged kittiwakes to populations 2020


As the number of wind energy developments increase globally both onshore and offshore, the potential associated environmental impacts are receiving considerable attention, particularly avian impacts. This is of particular concern at the cumulative scale (i.e. considering impacts of windfarms combined rather than of individual developments in isolation).

As the scale of offshore windfarm development expands, the risk of reaching unacceptable levels of cumulative impacts increases. In order to undertake meaningful cumulative impact assessments, there is a need for improved understanding of how birds respond to offshore windfarms and how to quantify the risk to populations of concern. Without such information, decision making is necessarily precautionary, and there is a risk that offshore windfarms may not be deployed at sufficient scale to contribute fully to emission reductions targets and ambitions.

Resource type Publication

Topic category Environment

Reference date 2020·01·09

Black, J. & Ruffino L. 2019. Better linking effects of offshore windfarms on black-legged kittiwakes to populations, JNCC Report No. 645, JNCC, Peterborough, ISSN 0963-8091.

This report presents a summary of existing evidence, and potential research opportunities, to inform assessment of the linkage of offshore windfarm effects on black-legged kittiwakes to appropriate populations (including Special Protection Areas).

Responsible organisation
Communications, JNCC publisher

Limitations on public access No limitations

Use constraints Available under the Open Government Licence 3.0

Metadata date 2020·01·10

Metadata point of contact
Communications, JNCC

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